Alma y cuerpo

Psiquiatría

La dicotomía alma y cuerpo ha estado presente desde tiempos inmemoriales, al menos en nuestra construcción occidental de la realidad. Los antiguos filósofos ya dibujaban una línea que separaba el alma y el cuerpo, en términos generales –con temor de provocar a los expertos–, el cuerpo podría reducirse a un vehículo que contiene el alma que es capaz de conocer y razonar. Por
supuesto, las interpretaciones de tal división llevan a diferentes y muy variados caminos, desde la inmortalidad del alma hasta problemas epistemológicos.

Entendida el alma como el principio que organiza y da forma a ciertos elementos para permitir la vida, dirigiendo las funciones y capacidades vegetativas, sensitivas e intelectuales de ese sistema, es evidente que hay una fuerte conexión con el cuerpo. Hay que reconocer entonces que el alma tiene ciertas potencialidades, capacidades, que solo pueden desarrollarse a través del cuerpo que la posee, como alimentarse, desplazarse, desear y razonar. De modo que, a pesar de las distinciones teóricas que se hagan entre cuerpo y alma, se puede reconocer que se hallan íntimamente unidos; del mismo modo que el alma es el motor del cuerpo, así mismo se ve afectada por este, por ejemplo, un cuerpo enfermo no le permite desarrollar todas sus facultades a cabalidad, y, al igual que el cuerpo, es también propensa a enfermarse.

Por supuesto, hoy en día ya no se habla del “alma” –quizás en un intento de evitar la asociación con nociones religiosas y tal vez, espirituales–, sino que se recurre a la noción de “mente”, aun cuando esta se refiera a una sola de las facultades o potencialidades del alma. Sin embargo, sigue siendo vigente la idea de que mente y cuerpo no son independientes. Esta unidad que crean merece también estudio. Desde diversas y diferentes disciplinas se ha abordado y se ha intentado entender este singular sistema, desde la filosofía y la medicina derivando en disciplinas relativamente recientes como lo son la psicología y la psiquiatría.

La Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB) es una institución dedicada a la investigación básica, clínica y tecnológica de las ciencias biológicas que aporta la formación de investigadores y la divulgación académica. En esta oportunidad nos ofrece la sexta edición de su libro Psiquiatría, una obra que recoge desde la historia de la psiquiatría, los diferentes trastornos que afectan a la mente, hasta los modernos enfoques y tratamientos para estos, y, por supuesto, la atención en urgencias.

Los doctores Carlos Palacio y Antonio Toro recopilan en el libro los artículos de destacados especialistas en cada una de las ramas de la psiquiatría a fin de que los estudiantes y los médicos generales puedan tener una base sólida y completa de la psiquiatría, por ello hay algunos capítulos que presentan autoevaluaciones y cuadros clínicos que complementan la formación de sus lectores. Es un abrebocas para aquellos interesados en comprender, desde una mirada científica, esa maravillosa e intrigante relación alma (mente) y cuerpo.

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